Hydra is built with tough security in mind.
OAuth 2.0 Security Overview
Hydra is an implementation of the security-first Fosite OAuth 2.0 SDK (https://github.com/ory/fosite). Fosite respects the OAuth 2.0 Threat Model and Security Considerations by the IETF, specifically:
- No Cleartext Storage of Credentials
- Encryption of Credentials
- Use Short Expiration Time
- Limit Number of Usages or One-Time Usage
- Bind Token to Client id
- Automatic Revocation of Derived Tokens If Abuse Is Detected
- Binding of Refresh Token to "client_id"
- Refresh Token Rotation
- Revocation of Refresh Tokens
- Validate Pre-Registered "redirect_uri"
- Binding of Authorization "code" to "client_id"
- Binding of Authorization "code" to "redirect_uri"
- Opaque access tokens
- Opaque refresh tokens
- Ensure Confidentiality of Requests
- Use of Asymmetric Cryptography
- Enforcing random states: Without a random-looking state or OpenID Connect nonce the request will fail.
Additionally these safeguards are implemented:
- Advanced Token Validation: Tokens are laid out as <key>.<signature> where <signature> is created using HMAC-SHA256 using a global secret.
Advanced Token Validation (Datastore Security)
For a OAuth2 access token, refresh token or authorize code to be valid, one requires both the key and the signature (formatted as <key>.<signature>). Only the signature is stored in the datastore (SQL), thus a compromised datastore will not allow an attacker to gain access to any valid authorize codes, access tokens, or refresh tokens.
Because HMAC-SHA256 is used, the System Secret is required to create valid key-signature pairs, rendering an attacker unable to inject new codes or tokens into a compromised datastore.
Hydra uses different cryptographic methods, this is an overview of all of them.
AES-GCM is used to encrypt JWKs at rest using a key size of 256 bit which exceeds requirements by Lenstra, ECRYPT II, NIST, ANSSI, and BSI, see https://www.keylength.com/en/compare/.
GCM (Galois/Counter Mode) is an authenticated encryption algorithm designed to provide both data authenticity (integrity) and confidentiality. GCM uses a nonce (“IV”) that has an upper limit of 2^32 nonces. If more nonces are used, there is risk of repeats. This means that you risk collisions when storing more than 2^32 documents authenticated with GCM. Because AES-GCM is only used to encrypt data at rest, this is might only impose a problem if
- more than 2^32 documents are stored using AES-GCM
- an attacker gains access to the datastore where > 2^32 documents are stored
- the attacker is able to exploit repeats, for example by authenticating malicious documents
RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-256 (RS256) is used to sign JWTs. It’s use is recommended by the JWA specification, see https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc7518.txt
The RSA Key size is 4096 bit long, exceeding the minimum requirement of 2048 bit by https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc7518.txt.
Recommendations from NIST, ANSSI, IAD-NSA, BSI, Lenstra and others vary between 1300 and 2048 bit key lengths for asymmetric cryptography based on discrete logarithms (RSA). 4096 exceeds all recommendations for 2017 from all authorities, see https://www.keylength.com/en/compare/.
HMAC (FIPS 198) with SHA256 (FIPS 180-4) is used to sign access tokens, authorize codes and refresh tokens. SHA-2 (with 256 bit) is encouraged by NIST, see http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/ST/hash/policy.html
BCrypt is used to hash client credentials at rest. It is not officially recommended by NIST as it is not based on hashing primitives such as SHA-2, but rather on Blowfish. However, BCrypt is much stronger than any other (salted) hashing method for passwords, has wide adoption and is an official golang/x library.
I recommend reading this thread on Security Stack Exchange on BCrypt, SCrypt and PBKDF2: https://security.stackexchange.com/questions/4781/do-any-security-experts-recommend-bcrypt-for-password-storage
Be aware that BCrypt causes very high CPU loads, depending on the Workload Factor. We strongly advise reducing the number of requests that use Basic Authorization.